Plenty of languages let you know differential target establishing, we

Plenty of languages let you know differential target establishing, we

Languages as opposed to instance otherwise adpositional establishing in which precisely the patient and you will motif, although not this new recipient, is actually listed are unattested.

age. a different case marker otherwise adposition towards the monotransitive diligent (and you can ditransitive motif) only with animate and you can/or chosen NPs (cf. Bossong 1985, 1998; Comrie 1989: ch. 6). Whenever, as it is are not the flingster pÅ™ihlásit outcome, new differential target marker try identical to this new receiver marker, you will find a possible state. Let us evaluate Foreign-language, that’s really-recognized for the differential object marker a occurring on the animate clients (cf. 6a-b). An identical preposition including scratching recipients (cf. 6c).

Through to epidermis assessment of these advice, it may look one both motif ‘book’ in addition to receiver ‘Juan’ when you look at the (6c) behave like the brand new monotransitive patient, to ensure we could possibly end up being speaking about a two fold-object construction. Although not, examination of an elevated range of investigation shows that having ditransitives the receiver is always marked having a beneficial, separately of its animacy, as the motif provides the same differential marking due to the fact monotransitive diligent. For this reason, Foreign-language and similar dialects was classified here while the indirect-target dialects.

step three. The fresh double-object framework

Regarding the great majority regarding times, the two stuff one to work equivalent and you can including the monotransitive diligent reveal zero establishing after all, i.elizabeth. none situation-ple (7) out-of Dagbani (Gur, Niger-Congo; Ghana and you will Togo) is more typical than simply example (2) above.

Brand new twice-object particular comes with dialects where the person and the latest theme was detailed for the verb, and therefore are indexed in the same ple try Kinyarwanda (Bantu; Rwanda; Dryer 1983).

In a lot of double-target dialects, the person and motif will be well-known by-word order, incase the order off person and you will theme is restricted, it’s usually the person which comes basic (cf. Sedlak 1975, Primus 1998). not, there are even plenty twice-target languages where not really keyword acquisition differentiates recipient and you will theme, so the character assignment have to be inferred on framework (age.grams. Shipibo-Konibo (Panoan; Peru), Valenzuela 2002).

cuatro. This new additional-object design

When you find yourself there are a few languages that, such as for example Chamorro, show unique case-establishing of ditransitive theme, in most additional-object dialects the new theme’s special choices concerns verb indexing: Within these languages there is no target circumstances-marking, and only the fresh new monotransitive diligent as well as the ditransitive person is actually detailed with the verb. A consistent example comes from Motuna (Eastern Bougainville; Papua The fresh Guinea).

5. Mixed languages

A words could have been classified since combined if this showcases a few equally common option constructions into the verb ‘give’, or if perhaps it offers a couple of verbs meaning ‘give’ and this take place in different constructions. The former circumstances are illustrated by Mandarin (cf. 9a-b), along with from the English.

There can be one to then particular behavior that would be thought about once the combined: when a housing is actually recognized each other by situation-establishing and also by verb indexing, and if these do not wade along with her. Such as, during the Bawm (Mouth, Tibeto-Burman; Myanmar and India), the newest individual are marked because of the postposition sinah, evaluating into unmarked motif, that is detailed to the verb because of the an item clitic and this including indexes the fresh new monotransitive diligent (nan= inside (10a-b)).

It has been felt like a little arbitrarily to not ever identify like dialects due to the fact combined, however, to identify him or her with regards to the conclusion of its situation otherwise adpositional marking. Hence, Bawm is actually categorized due to the fact a secondary-target words for the purpose of it map.

6. Geographical shipments

The two obvious geographic generalizations may be the overwhelming predominance of indirect-object development into the Eurasia (with the exception of mainland The southern area of Asia), and also the absence of that it pattern out-of The united states. Mesoamerica and you may surrounding components inside the South usa are also ruled because of the indirect-object languages, however, elsewhere the newest designs be more blended. Into the Africa, here seems to be specific alignment with vocabulary family: Afroasiatic and you will Mande languages commonly show the fresh new secondary-target design, while you are Niger-Congo dialects aside from Mande will let you know double-target and you may supplementary-target buildings.